Common name: Soya
Soy, also known as Glycine max, is a plant belonging to the legume family. It is native to East Asia and is widely cultivated for its protein and oil-rich seeds. Soybean plants are annuals that can grow up to 1 meter in height and produce white or purple flowers.
Soybeans thrive in warm, humid climates. It requires an average temperature of around 20-30°C during the growing season. Well-drained soils rich in organic matter are best. It is also important that the growing site has direct exposure to sunlight.
Soybeans are usually planted in the spring when all danger of frost has passed. Before planting, it is recommended to soak the seeds in water for 24 hours to promote germination. The seeds are then sown about 2 to 5 centimeters deep and spaced about 10 to 15 centimeters apart.
During the growth phase, soybeans require regular watering to ensure proper development. Be careful not to overwater, as excessive moisture can promote the development of fungal diseases. Regular weed removal around soybean plants is also important to avoid nutrient and water competition.
Harvesting of soybeans usually takes place in late summer or early fall, when the pods are ripe and the leaves are starting to turn yellow. The pods can be harvested by hand or using a special machine. It is essential to allow the pods to dry out completely after harvest before shelling them to obtain the seeds.
Diseases and pests:
Soybeans can be affected by various diseases such as root rot, anthracnose and soybean rust. Common pests include aphids, leaf-cutting caterpillars and flea beetles. Cultivation rotation, the use of resistant varieties and the implementation of good agricultural management practices can help prevent and control these problems.
Soybeans are usually propagated by seeds. Harvested seeds can be used for future planting, provided they are properly dried and stored in a cool, dry place.
- Pay attention to the nutritional balance of the soil by adding appropriate fertilizers, as soybeans have high nitrogen requirements.
- Watch for signs of disease or pests in the early stages and take appropriate preventive or curative measures, such as the use of biological insecticides or fungicides.
- Pay attention to crop rotation to avoid disease and pest problems specific to soybeans. Avoid growing legumes or related plants in the same area for several consecutive years.
- If you are growing soybeans on a small scale, you can also consider pot or container growing methods, which make it easier to control growing conditions and maintain plants.
In conclusion, soybean cultivation can be a rewarding endeavour, providing seeds rich in protein and oil. By following proper planting, maintenance, and disease and pest management practices, you can achieve a healthy and bountiful harvest. Be sure to regularly monitor your plants, water them properly, and protect them from pests to maximize your chances of success in growing soybeans.