Common name: Onion
Onion (Allium cepa) is a bulbous plant belonging to the Amaryllidaceae family. It is widely cultivated for its edible bulbs, which are used in many culinary preparations for their characteristic flavor and ability to add depth to dishes.
Onions prefer a temperate climate with a sunny exposure. They can be grown in a wide range of soils, but prefer soils that are well-drained and rich in organic matter. It is important to ensure that the soil is not too compact, in order to allow healthy development of the bulbs.
Onions can be planted from seeds, bulbs or seedlings. For a successful harvest of onion cultivation, planting is usually done in the spring, when the soil has begun to warm up. Dig shallow holes, spaced about 10 to 15 centimeters apart, and place the bulbs or seedlings, ensuring that the collar is level with the ground. For seeds, sow them on the surface of the soil and cover them with a thin layer of soil.
Onions require regular watering, especially during dry spells. However, it is important not to overwater them, as excess moisture can promote the development of fungal diseases. Regularly remove weeds around the plants to avoid competition. The onion generally does not need to be pruned.
Onions can be harvested when their tops begin to wilt and sag. When this happens, you can gently tug on the seedlings to dig them out. Let them dry for a few days in the shade, then cut off the tops and roots before storing them in a cool, dry place.
Diseases and pests:
Onions can be prone to certain diseases, including bulb rot, fusarium and rust. To prevent these problems, it is recommended to rotate crops, not to plant onions in infected soil and to use healthy bulbs. Common pests include thrips, flea beetles and onion flies.
Onions can be propagated by seed or by division of bulbs. If you want to use seeds, let a few onions reach the bolting stage, then harvest the seeds once they’re dry. For bulb division, simply separate mature bulbs into sections and replant.
For onion cultivation when planting onions, be sure to space them far enough apart to allow for proper bulb development. Onions can also be grown with other crops, such as carrots, leeks or salads, which helps to optimize the use of space in the garden. Be careful not to over-fertilize the soil, as this can encourage excessive leaf growth to the detriment of the bulbs. If you want to harvest long-term storage onions, choose specific varieties suitable for this purpose.
In conclusion, growing onions is relatively simple and rewarding. By providing the right growing conditions, following proper planting, care, and harvesting steps, you can enjoy these delicious bulbs in your home-cooked meals. Remember to take preventative measures against disease and pests, and experiment with different varieties to find out which ones work best for your garden. Good onion crop